This archive includes timely and interesting materials on space policy topics of current interest. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this archive are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Federation of American Scientists.
- Assured Access: A History of the United States Air Force Space Launch Enterprise, 1945-2020 by David N. Spires, Air University Press, April 2022
- National Strategy for Planetary Protection, The White House, December 2020
- National Space Policy of the United States of American, The White House, December 9, 2020
- A New Era for Deep Space Exploration and Development, White House National Space Council, July 23, 2020
- Impacts of Anti-Access/Area Denial Measures on Space Systems: Issues and Implications for Army and Joint Forces by Jeffrey L. Caton, Strategic Studies Institute, September 2018
- Destination Universe: Some Thoughts on Faster-Than-Light (FTL) Travel by Gary L. Bennett, Joint Propulsion Conference, July 2016
- Starry messages: Searching for signatures of interstellar archaeology by Richard A. Carrigan, Jr., Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), December 1, 2009
- Orbital Debris: Technical and Legal Issues and Solutions by Michael W. Taylor, Institute of Air and Space Law, McGill University, Montreal, August 2006
- Defense-Intelligence Space Integration by Bill Savage, prepared for the Commission to Assess United States National Security Space Management and Organization, January 2001. "The DCI and SecDef might eventually want to move the bulk of the existing NRO, including all its legacy systems, into the DoD structure for management, acquisition, and operations."
- Military Space Culture by Lt Col J. Kevin McLaughlin, prepared for the Commission to Assess United States National Security Space Management and Organization, January 2001. "This paper explores steps required to recruit and develop the cadre needed to lead future military space activities."
- A History of United States National Security Space Management and Organization by Joshua Boehm, et al, prepared for the Commission to Assess United States National Security Space Management and Organization, January 2001. "This paper provides a historical overview of U.S. national security space management and organization."
- US Space Management and Organization: Evaluating Organizational Options by Keith Kruse, Charles B. Cushman, Jr., et al, prepared for the Commission to Assess United States National Security Space Management and Organization, January 2001. "This paper outlines the the current state of national security space management (the baseline), and options for recommended changes to space management and organization that were considered by the Commission."
- Threats to United States Space Capabilities by Tom Wilson, prepared for the Commission to Assess United States National Security Space Management and Organization, January 2001. "The United States' increasing economic and military dependence on space creates a vulnerability that is an attractive target for our foreign adversaries."
- Commercial Space and United States National Security by Linda L. Haller and Melvin S. Sakazaki, prepared for the Commission to Assess United States National Security Space Management and Organization, January 2001. National security implications of commercial space programs.
- The Civil Space Sector by Randy Seftas, prepared for the Commission to Assess United States National Security Space Management and Organization, January 2001. Cooperative efforts between national security space organizations and civilian agencies.
- Anti-Missile System Won't Work - John Pike USA Today 27 January 1999 -- Bill Clinton's new missile defense plan has the same fatal flaw as Ronald Reagan's Star Wars program � it won't work. Fifteen years, one war, over a dozen failed tests and $60 billion later, you would think that folks would start to catch on that shooting down high-speed missiles is a lot easier in the movies than real life.
- Weaponization Of Space: Understanding Strategic and Technological Inevitabilities, Thomas D. Bell, Lt Col, USAF -- CSAT Occasional Paper No. 6 Center for Strategy and Technology Air War College, January 1999 -- It is inevitable that mankind will weaponize space and equally likely that this will take place in the next thirty years. In order for the Air Force to keep its place as the nation's premier provider of aerospace power, it must not just participate in this process � it must lead the rest of the nation to this destiny.
- Clausewitz on Space: Developing Military Space Theory through a Comparative Analysis Arnold H. Streland; Edward F. Greer (Faculty Advisor) Air Command and Staff College 1999 -- Clausewitz and others believed sound theory was the key to providing a common vision of military operations to all members of an organization. This paper seeks to provide some keys to space theory in order to create a common vision of the effects of space on military operations.
- Operationalizing and Integrating Space: Bridging the Cultural Barriers Randy B. Tymofichuk; Edward J. Bergemann (Faculty Advisor) Air Command and Staff College 1999 -- The evolution of space support and how space support has contributed to the operationalization and integration of space systems into warfighting roles and how cultural mindsets have affected this integration.
- Space Support To Military Operations Other Than War Russell L. Grimley; Michael Ulisse; Jeffrey R. Garner (Faculty Advisor) Air Command and Staff College 1999 -- Military commanders have come to rely heavily on information dominance for successful outcomes across all spectrums of conflict. Space derived information has become the primary source of this information.
- Protecting Commercial Space Systems: A Critical National Security Issue Charles H. Cynamon; Daniel C. Blaettler (Faculty Advisor) Air Command and Staff College 1999 -- DoD should not mortgage its future military space capability until commercial industry adequately addresses the issue of protection.
- Integrating Space into an Expeditionary Air Force Thomas A. Doyne; David R. Boozer (Faculty Advisor) Air Command and Staff College 1999 -- The AEF is not the organization to be the JTF's single focal point of space because the global nature of space forces requires C2 from a global, rather than a theater, perspective. Consequently, operational control of few (if any at all) of today's space systems can be transferred from USSPACECOM or other agencies to the JTF.
- Space And Air Force: Rhetoric Or Reality? Jeffrey D. Spencer; James Cashin; Carmen F. Perone, Jr. (Faculty Advisor) Air Command and Staff College 1999 - Current national space policy must be changed to allow the Department of Defense to defend both national and commercial space assets and ensure the space assets supporting worldwide military operations are protected.
- American Control of Outer Space in the Third Millennium
John Pike - November 1998 -- While a few other countries conduct military, civil or commercial space programs of some significance, no country can meaningfully contest American dominance of any of these sectors, and surely no other country could rival American dominance of the full spectrum of space operations. This full-spectrum dominance is both the hallmark and the instrumentality of American superpower.
- Theater Ballistic Missile Defense from the Sea -- Issues for the Maritime Component Commander Charles C. Swicker
Commander, United States Navy Newport Paper Number Fourteen August 1998
- Return of the Death Star? -- by the Cherub Study Group
July 31, 1998 -- In large part, missile defense programs have been kept afloat by deceptive
campaigns to distort test results and squash public criticism through strategic deception, abuse of the classification system, and intimidation.
- Ballistic Missile Defense Program Status Update John Pike July 1998
- Unifying Department of Defense Transportation: Normalizing Air and Spacelift JUNE 30, 1997
USSPACECOM ESSAY CONTEST WINNERS ANNOUNCED Release No. 20-98
- Missile Defense - Wrong Answer, Wrong Question - John Pike - 30 April 1998
- Distinguishing Space Power from Air Power: Implications for the Space Force Debate Alec M. Robinson; Budd A. Jones, Jr. (Faculty Advisor) Air Command and Staff College 1998 -- Air and space power are indeed different, but not so fundamentally so that the creation of a separate Space Force is mandated. Further development of space capabilities, operational concepts, and doctrine is necessary before the need for a Space Force can be determined based on the natures of air and space power.
- Aerospace Policy Integration: USAF Operational Impacts in the Age of Space Mark M. McLeod; Michael R. Foster (Faculty Advisor) Air Command and Staff College 1998 -- The pros and cons of integrating our national air and space policies, and of possible impacts a new organization might have on future Air Force operations.
- Space Force 2020: A Force For The Future Steven R. Lootens; Ronald C. Kennedy (Faculty Advisor) Air Command and Staff College 1998 -- The Air Force does not have a clear and supportable interpretation or definition of future Air Force space operations or "uniformed" space operators.
- Space Power Theory: A Rising Star Judson J. Jusell; Lantz R. Balthazar III (Faculty Advisor) Air Command and Staff College 1998 - A single comprehensive space power theory does not exist and Space power theory has much room for improvement in its definitions, explanations and predictions of space power.
- Beyond the Wild Blue Yonder: Creating an Air and Space Culture in Today's Air Force Cynthia J. Grey; Edwin L. Marsalis Jr. (Faculty Advisor) Air Command and Staff College 1998 - Cultural change needed in the USAF to transition to an air and space force.
- A Study on Contrasts: Similarities and Differences Between Development of Airpower and Space Power Scott E. Gilson; Theresa R. Clark (Faculty Advisor) Air Command and Staff College 1998 - Is the Air Force as prepared to pursue further development of space power as the Army Air Corps was to further the development of early airpower?
- How the Current View of the Air and Space Environment Influences Development of Military Space Forces Lyndon S. Anderson; Stephen M. Rothstein; Theresa R. Clark (Faculty Advisor) Air Command and Staff College 1998 - The military's perception of the air and space environment influences the type of space forces it will develop in the future.
- Command and Control in 2010: The Impact of Emerging Commercial Satellite Systems on Joint Operations X Virginia B. Ashpole; Theresa R. Clark (Faculty Advisor) Air Command and Staff College 1998 -- With modifications for military unique requirements, the emerging commercial satellite systems represent a pre-deployed, robust, and interoperable infrastructure which the military can leverage to its benefit.
- Virtual Space Control - A Broader Perspective Shawn J. Barnes; Carmen F. Perone Jr. (Faculty Advisor) Air Command and Staff College 1998 - USAF air doctrine and theory has been misapplied to space, and we need to reexamine the meaning and requirements both of and for space control.
- "Trust Me--I'll Deliver" Acquisition Approaches to Guarantee Commercial Companies Deliver Critical Space Products in Time of Crisis Stephen T. Denker; Theresa R. Clark (Faculty Advisor) Air Command and Staff College 1998 - How can the US Department of Defense's use effective acquisition approaches to guarantee delivery of commercial space products to meet key operational information and data transfer requirements in time of war or international crisis?
- Some Observations on Avoiding Pitfalls in Developing Future Flight Systems by Gary L. Bennett, AIAA 97-3209
- Why the Soviets Never Beat the U.S. to the Moon -
INTERVIEW WITH CHARLES P. VICK -- July 1997 -
A Soviet space expert discusses how recently declassified material confirms his painstaking discoveries over decades about why the Soviet Union was unable to win the space race.
- Two-Way Deception Traffic on the Road to Theater High Altitude Area Defense
by Gordon Mitchell
- ORIGINS OF THE USAF SPACE PROGRAM 1945-1956 by
Robert L. Perry
originally printed as
(Space Systems Division Supplement)
History of Deputy Commander (AFSC) for Aerospace Systems
History Office, Space and Missile Systems Center
- Searching for Policy Coherence: The DOD Space Architect as an Experiment Joan Johnson-Freese and Roger Handberg Joint Forces Quarterly Summer 1997 [285 kb PDF]
- Chronology of hit-to-kill missile tests 16 Apr 1997
- RSOC Opposition Movements: From Hardware to Doctrine Loring Wirbel April 1997- Eight members of the Global Network Against Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space toured
Europe in mid-March, with Colorado representatives focusing on meeting with opponents of
the consolidated NSA/NRO Regional SIGINT Operation Centers (RSOCs), specifically
those in Menwith Hill, Yorkshire (U.K.) and Bad Aibling, Germany.
- THE SOVIET MANNED LUNAR PROGRAM - MARCUS LINDROOS
- Nuclear Posture Review - directed by Morton H. Halperin, Senior Fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations and former Defense Department and National Security Council official. The Council on Foreign Relations takes no institutional position on the issue. The core recommendation of this project is that the government, led by the White House, needs to conduct a fundamental review of U.S. nuclear policy that reconsiders the conclusions of the Defense Department's 1993 Nuclear Posture Review.
- Convergence or Divergence: The Relationship between Space Doctrine and Air Force Doctrine Budd Jones Jr (Faculty Advisor); Steve L. Kwast Air Command and Staff College 1997 - Air Force doctrine, in general, and space doctrine, in particular, are moving in different directions and that this divergence poses a threat to our future capability as an air and space force.
- Gray Space and the Warfighter Juan D. Holguin; Timothy R. Newman; James M. Burlingame; Colleen M. Ryan; James B. Near Jr. (Faculty Advisor); Nancy Perry (Faculty Advisor) Air Command and Staff College 1997 - The commercialization of space and its impact on operational planning.
- Space Applications in the Logistics Arena: An Analysis of Project COMBAT TRACK Denise L Lengyel; Diane M Fischer (Faculty Advisor)
Air Command and Staff College 1997
- Space Doctrine for the 21st Century Robert D. Newberry; Thomas S. Kelso (Faculty Advisor) Air Command and Staff College 1997 - Without a clear vision of what space forces should do, the Air Force has been left to build space forces in an ad hoc manner.
- Spaceports and Airports: A Historical Comparison John W. Raymond; Edward F. Greer (Faculty Advisor) Air Command and Staff College 1997
- Space Dominance: How the Air Force Plans to Control Space Richard S. Stapp; Ed Greer (Faculty Advisor) Air Command and Staff College 1997 - The Air Force, as part of its vision for the 21st century, has declared Space Dominance and Space Control as new military objectives. It is not clear if the Air Force understands the difficulties associated with dominating the space environment.
- A Shot to the Space Brain: The Vulnerability of Command and Control of Non-Military Space Systems Sue B. Carter; Thomas S. Kelso (Faculty Advisor) Air Command and Staff College 1997 - Commercial and civil systems are more likely to solve vulnerability problems rather than create them.
- Space Operations for the 21st Century: A Functional Approach
David R. Levy; Peter Rogers (Faculty Advisor) Air Command and Staff College 1997 - USAF space doctrine and organizational structures are heavily biased by experience in airpower, resulting in an inappreciation of the unique features of space systems and fragmented warfighter support.
- What Really Happened With Mars-96? Igor Lissov, with comments from Jim Oberg November 19, 1996
- Searching for Life in the Solar System ... And Beyond A Research Discussion Meeting London, UK - 31 October 1996 - Selected Abstracts
- AUSTRALIA: COALITION FUNDING STAR WARS By Eric Chauvistre - AUSTRALIAN FINANCIAL REVIEW 28/10/96
- Arms Control and the U.S. Russian Relationship - Problems, Prospects and Prescriptions - Council on Foreign Relations and the Nixon Center for Peace and Freedom Task Force on U.S.-Russian arms
control - October 1996
- 09/16/96 "Interim Report of the U.S.-Russian Independent Scientific
Commission on Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium" by
J.P. Holdren (Co-Chair), J. Ahearne,
R.L. Garwin, W.K.H. Panofsky, J.J. Taylor, and
E.P. Velikhov (Co-Chair), A.A. Makarov, F.M. Mitenkov,
N.N. Ponomarev-Stepnoi, F.G. Reshetnikov, 16 September 1996.
(091696USRU) [also available in ASCII text format]
- Problems of START-2 Treaty ratification in Russia. Is START-3 possible? Eugene Miasnikov [This paper was published by "INESAP Information Bulletin" No 10, August 1996, and by
"Nezavisimaya Gazeta"(in Russian) on September 12, 1996]
- THE TMD FOOTPRINT CONTROVERSY Gordon Mitchell Northwestern University
- SPARTA's TMD FOOTPRINT ADVICE TO BMDO: OVERSTEPPING THE BOUNDARIES OF FACA? Gordon Mitchell Northwestern University Citizen issue brief prepared for Senator David Pryor (D-AK) and Senator Carl Levin (D-MI) July 24, 1996
- Blueprints for the Future -- Comparing National Security Space Architectures Christian C. Daehnick School of Advanced Airpower Studies JUNE 1996
- The Inherent Limitations of Spacepower: Fact or Fiction? Gregory Billman School of Advanced Airpower Studies JUNE 1996
- After the Gulf War: Balancing Spacepower's Development Frank Gallegos School of Advanced Airpower Studies JUNE 1996
- Concepts of Operations for a Reusable Launch Space Vehicle Michael A. Rampino School of Advanced Airpower Studies JUNE 1996
- National Security Implications of Inexpensive Space Access William W. Bruner III School of Advanced Airpower Studies JUNE 1996
- Counterspace Operations for Information Dominance James G. Lee School of Advanced Airpower Studies JUNE 1996
- When the Enemy Has Our Eyes Cynthia A. S. McKinley School of Advanced Airpower Studies JUNE 1996 (PDF)
- BENIGN WEATHER MODIFICATION BARRY B. COBLE School of Advanced Airpower Studies JUNE 1996
- A PRIMER ON Naval Theater Air Defense Commander Alan G. Maiorano, USN, Commander Nevin P. Carr, Jr., USN, and Trevor J. Bender Joint Forces Quarterly Spring 1996 [735 kb PDF]
- Chemical and Biological Warfare: Are the United States Navy and Marine Corps prepared? Nicholas S. Chekan, LCDR, USN 12 April 1996
- TV and Video Programs VIDEOCOSMOS Company April 1996 Moscow, Russia [Catalog prices are for personal (home) use only, not for any public show or broadcast. A cost
of a tape not included.]
- Report on the NASA/JPL Workshop on Advanced Quantum/Relativity Theory Propulsion, July 1995
- Joint Warfare and Military Dependence on Space Major Jeffrey L. Caton, USAF -- Joint Forces Quarterly Winter 1995 This dependence by the Armed Forces on space systems reveals a vulnerability that an enemy with knowledge and expertise could exploit and concentrates on an ignored threat: countries with little or no space capability. [ PDF Version 532 kb ]
- 08/30/95 "The Maintenance of Nuclear Weapon Stockpiles Without Nuclear
Explosion Testing" (Final of 09/26/95), by R.L. Garwin, 24th
Pugwash Workshop on Nuclear Forces "Nuclear Forces in Europe",
London, ENGLAND, September 22-24, 1995. (083095PUGW)
- Joint Theater Missile Defense Strategy Robert M. Soofer Joint Forces Quarterly Autumn 1995 [398 kb PDF]
- THEATER Ballistic Missile Defense General Ronald R. Fogleman, chief of staff, U.S. Air Force Joint Forces Quarterly Autumn 1995 [290 kb PDF]
- SHOULD THE MARINE CORPS POSSESS AN ORGANIC TACTICAL BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE CAPABILITY? - Keith Wilkes, Major, United States Marine Corps - June 1995
- Understanding Information Power and Organizing for Victory in Joint Warfighting - Fred W. Gortler, III, Major, United States Air Force
Information power is changing the American way of war. The United States
armed forces must develop a better understanding of the relationship between information
power and modern warfare. The United States can organize for victory in joint
information warfighting by assigning functional responsibility for information warfare to a
single combatant commander. US Space Command is the combatant command most
suited for this assignment.
- Waging Peace: The Non-Lethal Application of Aerospace Power - Major Gregory P. Cook, USAF - May 1995
- A New Era: From SAC to STRATCOM - Major Jon M. Fontenot, United States Air Force - May 1995
- The Future of Russia's Strategic Nuclear Forces: Discussions
and Arguments, E.V. Miasnikov , Center For Arms Control, Energy, and
Environmental Studies at MPTI, Dolgoprudny, 1995.
- Civil Satellite Vulnerability Allen Thomson Space News, 20-26 February 1995
- Satellite Vulnerability: a post-Cold War issue? Allen Thomson Space Policy (ISSN 0265-9646), 11 (1), February 1995, pp.19-30
The widely discussed use of US reconnaissance satellites during the Gulf War will strongly
motivate future regional adversaries to seek ways of countering US space-based assets. The
presumption that reconnaissance satellites can operate covertly is obsolete.
- Waiting for Starfleet - Military Space Doctrinal Imperatives - John Pike - October 1995
- NASA Technological Spinoff Fables John Pike - 25 May 1995
- COUNTERFORCE AND THEATER MISSILE DEFENSE: CAN THE ARMY USE AN ASW APPROACH TO THE SCUD HUNT? James J. Wirtz, March 27, 1995 -- Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College [88 kb PDF]
- Space Power 2010 James L. Hyatt III; Paul L. Laugesen; Michael A. Rampino; Ronald R. Ricchi; Joseph H. Schwarz Air Command and Staff College 1995 -- Today's US military space power is deficient. The US military has no space-based force application systems and no anti-satellite weapons, the latter being a key part of a space control capability.
- CENTRALIZED CONTROL OF SPACE: THE USE OF SPACE FORCES BY A JOINT FORCE COMMANDER RICKY B. KELLY, SCHOOL OF ADVANCED AIRPOWER STUDIES, AIR UNIVERSITY, September 22, 1994 [158 kb PDF]
- Joint Space Doctrine: Catapulting into the Future Captain George M. Moore, USN, Colonel Vic Budura, USAF, and Joan Johnson-Freese Joint Forces Quarterly Summer 1994 [324 kb PDF] Information dominance will provide the stimulus for the military space program in the near term. Maximizing the capabilities of the information weapon, however, requires formulating joint space doctrine that has broad support and applicability.
- Meeting the Challenge of Space Cooperation John Pike - 28 June 1994
- Meeting the Challenge of Space Cooperation John Pike - 24 June 1994
- ACLU Aids Ex-CIA Employee In Obtaining Prepublication Clearance for Article by Mark Srere First Principles, May 1994, p.12 (ISSN 0363-0447) Center for National Security Studies The ACLU's National Security Litigation Project secured a significant victory in its representation of former CIA employee Allen Thomson, who wished to publish an article on reconnaissance satellite policy.
- Ralpha - Russian/American Space Station Cooperation John Pike - 10 December 1993
- Theater Missile Defense: A Joint Enterprise Dennis McDowell Joint Forces Quarterly Winter 1993-94 [941 kb PDF]
- COUNTERSPACE OPERATIONS FOR INFORMATION DOMINANCE JAMES G. LEE, Major, USAF, School of Advanced Airpower Studies, Air University -- June 1993 [135 kb PDF]
- The Death-Beam Gap - Keegan's Follies in Perspective - John Pike - October 1992
- Effects on Living Tissues by Primary Cosmic Ray Particles by Jakob A.G. Eugster, et al, USAF Air Research and Development Command, February 1956
Maintained by Steven Aftergood
Created by John Pike